The remainder of the Baltic does not freeze during a normal winter, except sheltered bays and shallow lagoons such as the Curonian Lagoon. By this definition, the Danish Straits is part of the entrance, but the Bay of Mecklenburg and the Bay of Kiel are parts of the Baltic Sea. La moyenne de saison de la température de l'eau pour le mois de août se situe entre 18.5°C et 19.2°C. nov. (Actinopterygii, Pleuronectiformes): A New Flounder Species From the Baltic Sea", "Rapid speciation in a newly opened postglacial marine environment, the Baltic Sea", "White harbour porpoise sighting in Baltic Sea", "Rare Sowerby's beaked whale spotted in the Baltic Sea", "Whales seen again in the waters of the Baltic Sea", "Regional Species Extinctions - Examples of regional species extinctions over the last 1000 years and more", http://deski.fi/download.php?file_name=BlnrYjTbXR.pdf, "Satellite spies vast algal bloom in Baltic Sea", "Oxygenation at a Depth of 120 Meters Could Save the Baltic Sea, Researchers Demonstrate", "Ticking time bombs on the bottom of the North and Baltic Sea", Norbert Götz. , The open surface waters of the Baltic Sea "proper" generally have a salinity of 0.3 to 0.9%, which is border-line freshwater. In the northernmost reaches of the Bothnian Bay, ice usually stays until late May; by early June it is practically always gone. According to the 18th-century natural historian William Derham, during the severe winters of 1703 and 1708, the ice cover reached as far as the Danish straits. However, tidal currents occur in narrow passages in the western parts of the Baltic Sea. Nous relevons la température de l'eau quotidiennement dans ces pays et nous l'archivons afin de pouvoir calculer les moyennes mensuelles, notamment celles du mois de août. Physical characteristics of the Baltic Sea, its main sub-regions, and the transition zone to the Skagerrak/North Sea area, The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Baltic Sea as follows:. "Eastern Sea", appears in the Heimskringla and Eystra salt appears in Sörla þáttr. The ice reaches its maximum extent in February or March; typical ice thickness in the northernmost areas in the Bothnian Bay, the northern basin of the Gulf of Bothnia, is about 70 cm (28 in) for landfast sea ice. The Baltic states on the eastern shore were annexed by the Soviet Union. The Convention covers the whole of the Baltic Sea area, including inland waters and the water of the sea itself, as well as the seabed. The latest four occurred in 1983, 1993, 2003, and 2014 suggesting a new inter-inflow period of about ten years. The Baltic Sea was known in ancient Latin language sources as Mare Suebicum or even Mare Germanicum. The westernmost part of the Baltic Sea is the Bay of Kiel. During the Crimean War, a joint British and French fleet attacked the Russian fortresses in the Baltic; the case is also known as the Åland War. Pliny mentions an island named Baltia (or Balcia) with reference to accounts of Pytheas and Xenophon. Deteriorating bottles leak mustard gas and other substances, thus slowly poisoning a substantial part of the Baltic Sea. On this basis, a related hypothesis holds that the name originated from this Indo-European root via a Baltic language such as Lithuanian. "The Role of Baltic Trade in European Development from the XVIth to the XVIIIth Centuries". The ice-covered area during such a typical winter includes the Gulf of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland, the Gulf of Riga, the archipelago west of Estonia, the Stockholm archipelago, and the Archipelago Sea southwest of Finland. Drogden Sill (depth of 7 m (23 ft)) sets a limit to Øresund and Darss Sill (depth of 18 m (59 ft)), and a limit to the Belt Sea. The Baltic Proper is bordered on its northern edge, at the latitude 60°N, by the Åland Islands and the Gulf of Bothnia, on its northeastern edge by the Gulf of Finland, on its eastern edge by the Gulf of Riga, and in the west by the Swedish part of the southern Scandinavian Peninsula. After this, strong southern winds pushed the ice further into the north, and much of the waters north of Gotland were again free of ice, which had then packed against the shores of southern Finland. Nous relevons la température de l'eau quotidiennement dans ces pays et nous l'archivons afin de pouvoir calculer les moyennes mensuelles, notamment celles du mois de septembre.. La moyenne de saison de la température de l'eau pour le mois de septembre se situe entre 62°F et 64°F. In the period between the 8th and 14th centuries, there was much piracy in the Baltic from the coasts of Pomerania and Prussia, and the Victual Brothers held Gotland. Accédez aux moyennes saisonnières mois par mois des températures de l'eau de la mer Baltique en cliquant sur les liens ci-dessous : Cabaigne.net permet de connaître gratuitement la température de l'eau pour plus de 2000 destinations partout dans le monde en temps réel ou mois par mois avec les moyennes de saison.  At more than 600 species of invertebrates, fish, aquatic mammals, aquatic birds and macrophytes, the Arkona Basin (roughly between southeast Zealand and Bornholm) is far richer than other more eastern and northern basins in the Baltic Sea, which all have less than 400 species from these groups, with the exception of the Gulf of Finland with more than 750 species. Geographers widely agree that the preferred physical border of the Baltic is a line drawn through the southern Danish islands, Drogden-Sill and Langeland. From that time the waters underwent a geologic history summarized under the names listed below. In the south, the Bay of Gdańsk lies east of the Hel Peninsula on the Polish coast and west of the Sambia Peninsula in Kaliningrad Oblast. Little is known of their extent. On the long-term average, the Baltic Sea is ice-covered at the annual maximum for about 45% of its surface area. Neutral Sweden developed incident weapons to defend its territorial waters after the Swedish submarine incidents. The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish inland seas by area, and occupies a basin (a zungenbecken) formed by glacial erosion during the last few ice ages.  Significant flows in the opposite direction, salt water from the Kattegat through the Danish Straits to the Baltic Sea, are less regular. Retrouvez ci-dessous les moyennes de température relevées en août dans les différents pays côtiers de la mer Baltique. The Caspian Sea is larger in water volume, but—despite its name—it is a lake rather than a sea. In the deep of these basins the temperature variations are smaller. Yet another explanation is that the name originally meant "enclosed sea, bay" as opposed to open sea. In Sweden, the sea was then referred to as Mare Nostrum Balticum ("Our Baltic Sea"). They include the major rivers of north Europe, such as the Oder, the Vistula, the Neman, the Daugava and the Neva. Since the Baltic Sea is so young there are only two or three known endemic species: the brown alga Fucus radicans and the flounder Platichthys solemdali. Poland gained most of the southern shore. In the last very heavy floods the average water levels reached 1.88 m (6 ft 2 in) above sea level in 1904, 1.89 m (6 ft 2 in) in 1913, 1.73 m (5 ft 8 in) in January 1954, 1.68 m (5 ft 6 in) on 2–4 November 1995 and 1.65 m (5 ft 5 in) on 21 February 2002.. It's also the border between the shallow southern Øresund (with a typical depth of 5–10 meters only) and notably deeper water.  The difference between the bottom and surface salinities vary depending on location. An arm of the North Atlantic Ocean, the Baltic Sea is enclosed by Sweden and Denmark to the west, Finland to the northeast, the Baltic countries to the southeast, and the North European Plain to the southwest. This Norse-dominated period is referred to as the Viking Age. After the Nazi's rise to power, Germany reclaimed the Memelland and after the outbreak of the Eastern Front (World War II) occupied the Baltic states. "Beyond the Military State: Sweden's Great Power Period in Recent Historiography". Further north the pattern is inverted. Plusieurs pays ont leurs côtes au bord de la mer Baltique, parmi lesquels : la Lettonie et la Pologne. The water temperature of the Baltic Sea varies significantly depending on exact location, season and depth. Sweden's defeat in the Great Northern War brought Russia to the eastern coast. The ice cover is the main habitat for two large mammals, the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) and the Baltic ringed seal (Pusa hispida botnica), both of which feed underneath the ice and breed on its surface.  Older native names in languages that used to be spoken on the shores of the sea or near it usually indicate the geographical location of the sea (in Germanic languages), or its size in relation to smaller gulfs (in Old Latvian), or tribes associated with it (in Old Russian the sea was known as the Varanghian Sea). In 2005, a Russian group of scientists found over five thousand airplane wrecks, sunken warships, and other material, mainly from World War II, on the bottom of the sea. They bombarded Sveaborg, which guards Helsinki; and Kronstadt, which guards Saint Petersburg; and they destroyed Bomarsund in the Åland Islands. “Spatial Politics and Fuzzy Regionalism: The Case of the Baltic Sea Area.”, "Status of Biodiversity in the Baltic Sea", The Baltic Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak – sea areas and draining basins, poster with integral information by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, Interview of Finnish planetary geomorphologist Jarmo Korteniemi (at 1:10:45) on, Red List Benthic Invertebrate Expert Group (2013), Learn how and when to remove this template message, Helsinki Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area, the last European state to convert to Christianity, List of cities and towns around the Baltic Sea, "Swedish Chemicals Agency (KEMI): The BaltSens Project – The sensitivity of the Baltic Sea ecosystems to hazardous compounds", "The History of Russian Amber, Part 1: The Beginning", Chemical Weapon Time Bomb Ticks in the Baltic Sea, "Sturmfluten in der südlichen Ostsee (Westlicher und mittlerer Teil)", "Sturmfluten an der Ostseeküste – eine vergessene Gefahr? He might also have been influenced by the name of a legendary island mentioned in the Natural History of Pliny the Elder. Rystad, Göran, Klaus-R. Böhme, and Wilhelm M. Carlgren, eds. In 2008, almost no ice formed except for a short period in March.. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2001. Among marine fishes are Atlantic cod, Atlantic herring, European hake, European plaice, European flounder, shorthorn sculpin and turbot, and examples of freshwater species include European perch, northern pike, whitefish and common roach.
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